The children, without a doubt, they are experts in interpreting the non-verbal language, especially if it comes from their parents. For example, when a child has a bad behavior, or makes mischief, and there are guests in the house, his mother will ‘nail it’ with a look that says it all. The guy is retired and knows that after you there will come a reprimand.
Many times we try to hide what we think or feel, but our actions give us the clue. Worse still if the person we have in front of known and translated the also called meta-language.
Luis Naranjo Velasquez, a speech therapist from the Institute of Neuroscience of the Charity Board of Guayaquil, states that, according to neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), 55% of the communication of the person is bodily, 38% are perceived through the tone of voice and 7% words.
The meta-language, » explains Naranjo, emerged from the ontogeny (formation) of the humanity when the communication was based on gestures and gradually evolved to the language.
“Although the body part, the tone of voice and the words function as a pair, many times we manipulate because we say one thing and the body exteriorizamos another”.
In 1941 David Efron, in his work Gesture and Enviroment (Gesture and environment), established the importance of culture in the formation of many of our gestures. While in the 50’s there existed, on the part of anthropologists, a boom in the research of non-verbal human communication and, in 1966, highlighted The Hidden Dimension (The hidden dimension).
In 1972, Paul Ekman established 6 emotions innate: joy, sadness, fear, anger, disgust and surprise, which would at the same time reactions and, therefore, non-verbal expression of the universal type.
You can say that in comparison to the set of the facial expressions are universal, there are a large number of nonverbal elements that are conditioned to a large degree by the language and the culture, which would make the emotions elementary characteristics inherent to the human being with a high predictive power of the behavior.
For example, Naranjo mentions that when the person looks up and to the left means that you are recalling or evoking any memories and, if your gaze is to the right, is building or inventing something. “The physical part is there someone who knows how to read. The interesting thing about body language is that it does not lie, the words yes”.
Although there is a dictionary or handbook that describe or reveal with thoroughness and accuracy the meaning of each gesture, there are standards set by professionals in certain cases; for example, when someone touches the nose is an evidence of that is lying to you; also, if a person crosses the hands or legs so tense means that it hides something.
Utility in criminal investigation
There are many ways of understanding the non-verbal communication (NVC), even through tv series such as for example Miénteme, where the psychologist Paul Ekman is able to detect if people are lying or telling the truth by analyzing the expression of your face, your gestures and your voice. With this gift to solve criminal cases.
Fernando Gordillo León, specializing in criminology, cites a classification of this form of communication: paralenguaje (physical and sound), quinésica (psicomusculares: facial and body), proxemics (conceptual: relating to the space), cronémica (value of time). In addition to the social part and the appearance.
The polygraphist John Garaycoa argues that this type of language is what can be used for good or for evil. If it is for the first, the person prepares to inject positivity, so that your message reaches its target. If it is otherwise, it will transmit distress, a need, a desperation to achieve a goal and, by means of this faculty, a benefit to him or her, that is to say through the deception.
Garaycoa he even points out that there are people who, when they have a business meeting, hire someone who specializes in the non-verbal language, to tell you at the end of the meeting if the other party lied or if it is reliable.
“There is not a moment in which we don’t have that expression, non-verbal because it speaks in more than 80% of what we say or do. When you have a pattern you can compare the gestures.”
The expert mentioned that when going to cross-examine a person to determine his innocence or not, there is a program called EyeDetect, which acts directly in the eyes. If you dilate, it is sign that the individual is not telling the truth.
For the psychologist and morfopsicólogo Spanish Julian Gabarre, author of the book The face and the personality, the face is the terminal of our neurophysiology. “The nerves that go from the brain to the face, do so directly without passing through the spinal cord, with which the communication is more direct and faster.”
In factions, explains Gabarre, we can see how is our intelligence, feelings, desires and instincts and, as a consequence of this, what are our core competencies, and points that we need to improve. “Seeing the face we can see how our brain works with an absolute precision”.
The study of gestures Gabarre called the psychology of the face. He indicates that these are elements that have an accuracy of 70%, whereas the psychology of facial is absolute. “There are gestures that can tell us if a person deceives us. With this specialty we detect if that person is a liar”.
A paper presented at the Complutense University of Madrid, argues that the gesture is a language, preverbal that begins at birth; in fact, this form of communication is intensely instinctive and emotional.
The study of gestures dates back to Ancient Rome
The interest in and the study of gestures it already existed in Ancient Rome (753 to.C.), proof of this are the annotations on certain signals and gestures that are reflected in the work summit of Cicero: The orator.
Said Merleau-Ponty that the body is eminently a space of expressive”. While the father Jousse held that the language in gestural, oral and written, came from the same nature: the interaction of universal broker and what they do, that the man receives, records, and, if you can, re-represent, mimics, or mirrors, first with gestures, then through the sounds and finally using graphics.
Jousse was talking about the man in terms of ‘anthropos mimic’: cinemímico (miming, gestures), fonomímico (mimic sound) and grafomímico (miming writing).
Gordon R. Wainwright said that the property of the gestures allows you to achieve a degree of expressiveness and subtlety that does not occur in other non-verbal signals.
Nierenberg and Calero claimed that gestures are used to express emotions and attitudes, such as openness, the sheltered, the willingness to do something, tranquility, frustration, confidence, nervousness, acceptance, expectation, relationship, and mistrust, and to discover their meanings. (I)